A Comparative Study of Biofilm Removal with Hand, Rotary Nickel-Titanium, and Self-Adjusting File Instrumentation Using a Novel in Vitro Biofilm Model

J. Lin, Y. Shen, and M. Haapasalo

Journal of Endodontics. 2013 May; 39(5):658-63.


INTRODUCTION: This study sought to present a standardized biofilm model in extracted teeth with an artificial apical groove to quantify the efficacy of hand, rotary nickel-titanium, and self-adjusting file (SAF) instrumentation in biofilm bacteria removal.

METHODS: Thirty-six extracted single-rooted teeth with oblong canals were selected. Each tooth was split longitudinally, and a 0.2-mm-wide groove was placed in the apical 2 to 5mm of the canal. After growing mixed bacteria biofilm inside the canal under an anaerobic condition, the split halves were reassembled in a custom block, creating an apical vapor lock. Teeth were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups (n = 10 per group) using the K-file, ProFile (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Products, Tulsa, OK), and the SAF (ReDent-Nova, Ra’anana, Israel). Irrigation consisted of 10 mL 3% NaOCl and 4 mL 17% EDTA. Six teeth received no treatment. Areas inside and outside the groove were examined using a scanning electron microscope.

RESULTS: The scanning electron microscope showed a consistently thick layer of biofilm grown in the canals of the control group after 4 weeks. Within the groove, a smaller area remained occupied by bacteria after the use of the SAF compared with the ProFile and the K-file (3.25%, 19.25%, and 26.98%, respectively; P < .05). For all groups, significantly more bacteria were removed outside the groove than inside (P < .05). No statistical differences were found outside the groove (P > .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Although all techniques equally removed bacteria outside the groove, the SAF reduced significantly more bacteria within the apical groove. No technique was able to remove all bacteria. This biofilm model represents a potentially useful tool for the future study of root canal disinfection.


Additional Info