Force and Vibration Generated in Apical Direction by Three Endodontic Files of Different Kinematics During Simulated Canal Preparation: An In Vitro Analytical Study

A. Nayak, P.K. Kankar, P.K. Jain, N. Jain

Journal of Engineering in Medicine. 2019; jun 5 [Epub ahead of print]



During root canal shaping, pain could result from the high level of force or vibration generated. This could be related to file kinematics or geometry. In the present study, a comparison is made between forces and vibrations generated by endodontic files having three different kinematics. Square pillar resin blocks were used as simulated root canals to study forces and vibrations generated by the file having reciprocating motion (WaveOne Gold), transline motion (Self-Adjusting File), and rotary motion (2Shape). The forces and vibrations were measured using the dynamometer and accelerometer, respectively. Recorded time domain signals were processed in MATLAB to calculate the root mean square value. A one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test for post hoc comparison at 95% confidence interval were applied over the root mean square data of different files. From a statistical analysis of the file systems, the null hypotheses could not be accepted ( P < 0.05) as 95% of the confidence interval. Differences between the means were statistically significant. The root mean square values of force and vibration for WaveOne Gold significantly exceeded those of Self-Adjusting File, 2Shape1, and 2Shape2 while the root mean square values of vibration for 2Shape1 and 2Shape2 were significantly less than the Self-Adjusting File; however, the root mean square value of force for the 2Shape2 was significantly more than for the Self-Adjusting File. Under the present experimental conditions, significant differences in the root mean square values of force and vibration of the three endodontic files of different kinematics have been observed. The WaveOne Gold file system generated higher apical force and vibration than the transline and rotary file system.


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